To have a better understanding of 5G and its possible health risks, it will be worthwhile to first talk about what is known as Electromagnetic field (EMF). Due to technological advancements, the terrestrial electromagnetic environment has been altered. Dr. Robert O. Becker in a statement said “I have no doubt in my mind that, at the present time, the greatest polluting element in the earth’s environment is the proliferation of electromagnetic fields (EMFs).” Though these electromagnetic waves (EMW) provide immeasurable benefits but in another way, they may also create potential hazards through uncontrolled and excessive radiation emissions.
5G networks employ three categories of frequencies which are: Low (0.6 GHz – 3.7 GHz), Mid (3.7 – 24 GHz), and High-band frequencies (24 GHz and higher) to deliver their services. On a general note, it is the high band frequencies that have caused most concern, although ongoing worries about 2G, 3G and 4G, which use the low and mid part of the range, have not subsided.
Possible Health Risks:
Now Let’s look at the possible health risks associated with 5G especially within the range of it’s electromagnetic field:
In the occupational group of electronic equipment repairers exposed to ELF-EMF, sleep insufficiency was shown to be more common, though not statistically significant when compared to controls. Sleep and sleep efficiency have also been linked to 60 Hz MF exposure in previous studies. So far, no statistical significance has been found in research examining sleep quality in the context of ELF-EMF exposure in people. Abelin et al. found that difficulty falling asleep and, more importantly, sustaining sleep increased with increasing RF-EMF exposure in the proximity of a short-wave broadcast station. In addition, after the exposure was interrupted, the sleep quality improved. A similar study revealed a link between EMF exposure and sleep quality and melatonin excretion, but only in poor sleepers, implying that some persons are more sensitive than others. The authors pointed out that the lack of blinding in their study could have resulted in such findings. Based on an evaluation clinically carried out, sleep problems do not appear to be a common symptom of high-frequency EMF exposure, and no definitive conclusions can be formed about any potential health risk at this time. Hutter et al. also found no significant effect on sleep quality, claiming that the worry of harmful health effects from EMF radiations, as well as age, could be to blame. Sleep is an essential component of biological species to help them cope with the stresses of daily life. Although studies linking EMF exposure to sleep reveal certain biological impacts, they do not give proof of any negative health repercussions.
Ocular and Auditory Effects:
According to a recent study, higher ELF-EMF exposure at 50 Hz, 10.182 kV/m coupled to 4.45 pT MF may cause adverse auditory effects in rabbits, particularly in the organ of Corti and outer hair cells, as a result of decreased distortion product auto acoustic emission amplitudes in the higher frequency region localized in the basal turn of the cochlea, which are similar to human frequency spectra. MP use has been linked to tinnitus and acoustic neuroma in terms of RFR-EMF. The first biological structure to be affected by MP EMFs is the ear. Furthermore, the system is vulnerable to radiation emissions because to the substantially increased vulnerability of cochlear outer hair cells to damage from a variety of exogenous and endogenous causes. Around half of the world’s population now has a mobile phone, and even more are exposed to EMF emissions through “passive mobile dialing.” Hearing difficulties have been explored in animals with parallel discrepancies, as reported in a few observational studies.
There was no immediate effect on hearing threshold level of pure tone audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, auditory brain stem response, or any depreciation in hearing in young human volunteers after ten minutes of acute MP radiation exposure. Long-term MP use, on the other hand, has been associated to a higher relative risk of auditory schwannoma. Despite the interest in EMF impacts caused by MP, there is a lack of reliable evidence addressing the negative effects on the auditory system, therefore we are still far from reaching any conclusions and are unable to design safe and sound communication devices required to protect one of the senses.
The only undisputed adverse effects of MW exposure are heat-related skin damage and lens abnormalities in human eyes. Carpenter discovered in the late 1970s that microwaves can cause cataracts and have an effect on the eyes by lowering the ascorbic acid level of the lens and inhibiting DNA synthesis and mitosis in the lens epithelium, slowing the recovery process. Furthermore, due to the lack of vasculature and low water content, the lens becomes more exposed to EMF dangers. Spector postulated the importance of OS in cataract development due to significant oxidation of lens protein and lipid at older age. However, the information is insufficient to make decisions about ocular abnormalities such as cataracts in human participants exposed for long periods of time.
In recent years, an increase in male infertility cases has prompted scientific analyses that point to EMRs as one of the likely environmental reasons. Despite decades of research, the influence of EMFs on reproductive function is further complicated by contradicting data. MPs have, rather than being a status symbol, become an integral part of everyone’s life during the last decade and a half. Because it is frequently carried in pockets near the body and reproductive system, its impact on male infertility is a serious concern that requires quick care.
Several studies have been conducted to look into the possibility of ELF field characteristics causing reproductive system damage. In rat testis, intermittent 50 Hz low frequency horizontal EF exposure caused severe histological abnormalities such as localized tubular atrophy, necrosis, and seminiferous epithelial erosion. However, there was no significant difference in serum testosterone levels between the exposed and control groups. Male rat pups treated from gestation day 13 to postnatal day 21 had toxic effects from 60 Hz, 1 mT ELF-EMF. The study discovered a decrease in the number, diameter, area, and volume of seminiferous tubules, as well as the height of seminiferous epithelium and leydig cell count, all of which point to negative impacts on testis development. On the other hand, pregnant rats exposed to 60 Hz, 500 T for 21 hours/day from gestation day 6 to postnatal day 21 did not show any significant differences in spermatogenesis or male offspring fertility when compared to controls. In mouse studies, 60 Hz EMF was found to greatly increase germ cell mortality and abnormalities in seminiferous tubules while having no effect on body or testes weights.
In animal investigations involving RF-EMF exposure, increased levels of sperm head abnormalities have been found to be positively connected with RF-EMF exposures, implying a dose-response impact. Aitken et al. found changes in the genome of epididymal spermatozoa in mice subjected to 900 MHz RF-EMW for 7 days at 12 hours each day. At 2.45 GHz frequency, rats showed reduced spermatocyte numbers, leydig cell hyperplasia, and higher testosterone levels in parallel trials. Male rats subjected to RF-EMF (2 hours/days, 35 days, 0.9 W/kg) from MPs showed a significant decrease in protein kinase C and total sperm count, as well as increased apoptosis.
A previous study on rats discovered significant changes in OS equilibrium in reproductive organs, as well as altered semen parameters, demonstrating the underlying link between RF-EMR exposures and semen quality alterations. In contrast, GSM-RF radiation from a cellular phone had no effect on testicular function in rats. In vitro testing of the effect of 900 MHz MP radiation at a SAR of 2.0 W/kg on the fertilizing capacity of human sperm discovered no negative effects on acrosome reaction. However, the researchers discovered substantial results in sperm morphometry, including a quantifiable decrease in sperm binding to hemizona, showing that RF-EMF has a major effect on male fertilizing capacity. A study examining the effects of RFR emitted from GSM multiband MP (900/1900 MHz at a SAR of 1.4 W/kg) in Drosophila melanogaster exposed during the 10-day developmental phase from egg laying to pupation came up with some interesting results. Observational studies linked to RFR-EMF exposure indicated a decrease in sperm quality, as measured by sperm count, motility, viability, and normal morphology, which was also found to be a function of MP use duration. Wdowiak et al. also found that the frequency of GSM-MP exposure increased the fraction of sperm cells with defective morphology and decreased the proportion of rapid progressing sperms.
Neuronal cells’ failure to divide and repair themselves after being destroyed puts the organism vulnerable to a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Parkinson’s disease and other neurological disorders have been related to accumulated DNA damage in brain tissues. One example could be the increased prevalence of Alzheimer’s dementia among textile factory workers exposed to ELF-MFs. In their review, Ahlbom and coworkers hinted at a probable link between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and occupational ELF-EMF exposure. The impact of confounders, on the other hand, cannot be entirely out. In human individuals, 50 Hz, 1 mT ELF-EMF exposure has been shown to reduce cognitive abilities such as attention, perception, and memory. Animal studies in mice have also shown that ELF-EMF exposures cause depression by increasing nitric oxide levels in the brain, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. When ELF-EMF exposure is in the same direction as the mouse position, studies have shown that short-term exposure can produce minor changes in neurotransmitter metabolism, circulating amino acids, and monoamine metabolism.
Authors have observed that RFR-EMFs interact with cognitive functions such as shortening reaction times, especially during tasks that involve attention or processing of information in working memory, in relation to RFR-EMFs. Another study found that MP RF-EMF exposed rats had shorter latency in a passive avoidance challenge, indicating severe deficits in memory retention and retrieval. According to the authors, RFR-EMF exposure may cause changes in neuronal functioning in both the hippocampus and the amygdala, resulting in altered behavior during task execution.
Due to the variety of assessment methodologies used and exposure scenarios, comparative analysis of research associating cognitive and nervous system function to EMF exposure becomes challenging, and despite the abundance of scientific evidence, the results become inconsistent and unconvincing. At this time, the precise mechanism of EMF’s negative effects on neurons is unknown; however, some research has shown that lipid peroxidation and free radical production may play a role.
An investigation with a human head exposed to 37 Hz EMF at an 80 T flux density revealed that EMF could change nociception and be linked to cardiovascular problems. Hkansson et al. found a low-level increase in AMI risk in the highest exposure group and found that genetically predisposed patients had an enhanced EMF influence for AMI, potentially due to lower heart rate variability, using the synergy index of 2.7 in monozygotic twins (HRV). A cohort study of electric utility workers found a link between 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure in the workplace and arrhythmia-related heart diseases.
A cohort study of railway workers exposed to 16.7 Hz intermittent MF found no link between arrhythmia-related cardiac disease or acute myocardial infarction and death (AMI). The circulatory and neurological systems, particularly the autonomic nervous system, are prone to EMF impacts due to their electric nature. With high-intensity EMFs, more explicit harm to neurovegetative regulation, particularly a diminished parasympathetic function, may result, leading to cardiovascular malfunction. ELF-EMFs have also been linked to affecting neonates’ heart rates and interfering with electronic medical equipment such as pacemakers, but only when stored close to the chest.
Melatonin, one of the body’s many hormones, has become the focus of the majority of EMF research. Melatonin, a tryptophan derivative mostly produced by the pineal gland, has been shown to be impacted by EMF in both animals and humans. Furthermore, EMF activity has been demonstrated to disrupt the enzyme machinery involved in melatonin production. Bellieni et al. recently explored the influence of ELF-EMFs from incubators on melatonin synthesis in neonates who had spent at least 48 hours in the incubators. They discovered a transient increase in melatonin secretion practically immediately after the newborns were removed from the incubators in their trial, demonstrating the potential for EMF to affect neonatal melatonin production. In comparison to controls, an occupational cluster of electronic equipment repairers exposed to ELF-EMFs due to their work experienced significant melatonin depression. After the first and fifth days of exposure to 16.7 Hz MFs, epidemiological investigations on Swiss railway workers found statistically significant reductions in mean evening 6-OHMS (6-hydroxymelatonin sulphate) concentrations. Another occupational investigation of male electric utility workers exposed to 60 Hz found that with temporally steady MF exposures, there was a decrease in postwork shift 6-OHMS/creatinine excretion.
In comparison to controls, an occupational cluster of electronic equipment repairers exposed to ELF-EMFs due to their work experienced significant melatonin depression. After the first and fifth days of exposure to 16.7 Hz MFs, epidemiological investigations on Swiss railway workers found statistically significant reductions in mean evening 6-OHMS (6-hydroxymelatonin sulphate) concentrations. Another occupational investigation of male electric utility workers exposed to 60 Hz found that with temporally steady MF exposures, there was a decrease in postwork shift 6-OHMS/creatinine excretion.
In a study examining the effect of continuous EMF emission from video display units on exposed embryos and young chickens, significant decreases in melatonin and corticosterone levels were found. Furthermore, a significant increase in fetal loss was observed, showing the negative impact of these EMF emissions. EMFs generated from magnetostrictive cavitrons used by dentists were found to reduce serum cortisol in occupational investigations. Despite all of these studies showing an increase or decrease in cortisol levels, another set of researchers found no significant change, demonstrating the field’s inconsistency.
In addition, prolactin levels were found to be normal even after exposure to radio-cellular phones in parallel trials. In terms of thyroid hormones, EMF exposure has been linked to a drop in T3 and T4 levels, as well as an increase in T4 levels with no effect or normal T3 levels. These findings, when considered collectively, illustrate the diversity of EMF research, perplex the knowledge of EMF biointeraction, and hence call for more research. In light of the above evidences, it seems that EMF acts as a stressor and has the potential to affect the various endocrine secretions posing a significant health threat.
Many scientists are attempting to comprehend the detrimental effects of 5G radiation by looking at its features. High-energy radiation, such as x-rays and gamma rays, causes ionization. This means it has enough energy to take an electron from an atom or molecule, potentially damaging cell DNA and causing cancer. Professor Rodney Croft, an expert to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), claims that there is no 5G cancer risk since the levels of MMW utilized in 5G (and older mobile technologies) are so low that the heating effects aren’t detrimental. Physicist and cancer researcher David Robert Grimes makes a similar case:
In a study on RFR-EMF, Hardell et al. claimed that the incidence of vestibular schwannoma has grown in the decades since cell phones were introduced in Sweden, the country with the highest use of mobile technology. To determine the link between mobile phone use and vestibular schwannoma, Hardell et al. undertook a cross-sectional investigation. For exposure and symptom assessment, a self-administered questionnaire was used. Cases with age, sex, and geographic area matched controls were identified from Swedish cancer registries. CT and MRI images were used to determine the histopathological and anatomical location of the tumor.
The dangers of cordless and digital phones were also estimated, but the results were not statistically significant. The researchers also documented cases of unilateral tinnitus in people who used their cell phone on the ipsilateral side; however, a causal link could not be established based on case reports alone. Another noteworthy result was that there is a link between vestibular schwannoma and cordless and cellular phones. Men in the 50–59 year age group had the highest rate of growing incidence.
The Hardell group discovered an elevated risk for ipsilateral exposure with greater than 10 years latency period and subjects started using MP and cordless phone below 20 years of age in both astrocytoma and acoustic neuroma based on two case-control studies on brain tumors with regard to MP and cordless phone use. The exposures were assessed using a questionnaire method, and cases were found in cancer registries. The tumor was evaluated in relation to the anatomical region of the brain and was linked to the side of the head used during phone calls, with ipsilateral use defined as more than 50% of the time and contralateral use as less than 50% of the time.
Cho and Chung found that low density ELF-EMF acts as an enhancer in the Benzopyrene initiation phase rather than as an initiator of mutagenesis effects in human cells. However, the majority of studies conclude that EMF exposure is not carcinogenic. The lack of supporting animal data on EMF’s carcinogenic potential, as well as flaws in human research, especially when it comes to exposure assessment, makes comprehending epidemiological effects challenging. The majority of reviews found no evidence of magnetic field (MF)-induced cancer; nevertheless, mounting data suggests that they could operate as cocarcinogens when provided in combination with recognized genotoxic or nongenotoxic carcinogens, demonstrating their synergistic effect. Furthermore, the DNA-damaging potential of EMFs is of concern due to free radical formation and increased lifetime, as well as changes in DNA repair pathways. However, given the current state of knowledge on carcinogenesis, which is riddled with contradictory results in the lack of defined mechanisms, rigorous exposure limits are recommended until a definite conclusion is achieved.
As you can see, these are a few research findings made by both individual and group authorities ( Read More Here). Given the pervasiveness of EMFs, their extensive applications, and their capacity to cause harm, thorough examinations of the health hazards are essential. It is currently not possible to establish a solid judgment based on the published literature on EMF. However, the likelihood of unfavorable outcomes cannot be ruled out. Several research using suitable methodology have shown that EMFs can have negative health impacts. The lack of a well-established biointeraction mechanism, however, does not invalidate these research because there are other plausible mechanisms, such as OS, that can account for the reported results.
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